endobj Box, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Thus, sex may be a demographic factor, which may interfere with the effects of other factors and it must be controlled for investigating the disease. �*T0T0 Bi������f����� � � Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions. One of the important oral signs of diabetes is gingivitis and periodontitis. This paper aims to review the evidence on the potential roles of modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors associated with periodontal disease. �*T0T0 Bi������f����� � [92] found significantly more periodontal attachment loss among mothers of PLBW infants compared with mothers of normal-term infants. Am J Dent 27(2): 63-67. 2012;9:3. Periodontal epidemiology literature lacks consistency in methodology of research, which includes various definitions for periodontal disease and health; different approaches to measuring periodontal indices of pocket depth, and attachment loss; inconsistent study designs and lack of … One likely candidate is the C-reactive protein (CRP), although this protein is part of the body’s normal response to infection and inflammation. Socioeconomic Factors. A review of the relationship between osteopenia, oral bone loss, and periodontal disease [83, 84] concluded that osteopenia does play a role in the expression of periodontal disease. Patients with inadequate stress behavior strategies (defensive coping) are at greater risk for severe periodontal disease [60–65]. Bascones A, González J, Sanz J (2014) Diabetes and periodontal disease. Many of the studies conducted to date suggest there is a relationship between skeletal osteoporosis and bone loss [75–80] to the extent that postmenopausal osteoporosis may result in dental osteopenia involving the jaws, and particularly the mandible [81]. Like adverse oral health conditions, Alzheimer disease and related disorders are also very common among aging populations. 16 0 obj �26S073QI�r � Several explanations for the association between obesity and periodontal disease [71–73] in younger adults have been provided. This aggregation within families strongly suggests a genetic predisposition. �26S073QI�r � MEDLINE (1980 to Jan 2014), PubMed (using medical subject headings), and Google Scholar were searched using the following terms in different combinations: “periodontal disease,” “periodontitis,” “risk factors,” and “causal.” This was supplemented by hand-searching in peer-reviewed journals and cross-referenced with the articles accessed. Some studies have found no relationship between periodontitis and ischemic heart disease [56, 57]. We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the influence of PD on dementia. 6 0 obj Instead, a descriptive assessment of the results based on the extracted data was performed. endobj Tobacco smoking exerts a substantial destructive effect on the periodontal tissues and increases the rate of periodontal disease progression [24]. �26S073QI�r � Data. <>stream Children and adolescents can have any of the several forms of periodontitis such as aggressive periodontitis, chronic periodontitis, and periodontitis as a manifestation of systemic diseases [6–8]. endstream The increased severity of periodontal disease and bone loss with age is probably related to the length of time, where the periodontal tissues have been exposed to bacterial plaque, and is considered to reflect individual’s cumulative oral history [113]. With oral contraceptives, this increase in gingival inflammation is mainly related to the duration of use as it has been suggested that prolonged use of oral contraceptives may detrimentally affect the periodontium. In addition, Bacteroides forsythus [19], Prevotella intermedia [18], Peptostreptococcus micros [20], and Fusobacterium nucleatum [21] have been strongly linked with the progression of adult periodontitis. They also confirmed that both IL-1 genotyping and smoking history provide objective risk factors for periodontal disease in a private practice environment [130]. These studies have shown that advanced periodontal destruction and bone loss are seldom seen in individuals under the age of 40 [109, 114]. Risk factors including tobacco smoking modify the host response to the challenge of bacteria in microbial dental plaque [ 25, 26 ]. endobj endstream McDevitt et al. Other factors increasing the risk of developing periodontal disease: <>stream Poor oral health, including caries, tooth loss, and periodontitis, is ubiquitous worldwide, and is potentially treatable and preventable. Studies show genetic risk factors associated with periodontitis [123–129]. It can be certain that gingival health is better among individuals with higher education and with more secure income. This paper aims to review the evidence on the potential roles of modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors associated with periodontal disease. <>>>/Contents 24 0 R/Parent 3 0 R>> v�t�]�қ��Z^�� Ogr�w��/dE�����z���-~������GPʨ�m�Bj�aW����R���BOO��$V�lV ��N�|���+2Cv�W Review of the literature. 47 articles were identified initially and after applying exclusion criteria only nine articles were selected for this review. Younger people may have different dietary patterns than older study participants. Plasmin, in turn, can activate some other types of latent MMPs, while tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) can inactivate the active MMPs [94]. AlJehani, Yousef A.; 30 0 obj This paper aims to review the evidence on the potential roles of modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors associated with periodontal disease. 15 0 obj Periodontitis is one of the most ubiquitous diseases and is characterized by the destruction of connective tissue and dental bone support following an inflammatory host response secondary to infection by periodontal bacteria [1, 2]. Offenbacher et al. Author information: (1)Department of Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Munster, Domagkstrasse 22, D-48149 Munster, Germany. Periodontal disease (PD) is common and increases cardiovascular diseases. And host ’ s response SES, but the relationship observed between sex and the pathogenesis of adult.... 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